The NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) are materials with a high content of natural radioactivity, such as natural materials or materials derived from working processes. National legislation governs worker and population exposure to working activities and identifies a set of activities that are subject to legislative requirements.

They are

  • Industries that use phosphate minerals;
  • Depots for the wholesale trading of fertilisers;
  • Mineral processing in the extraction of tin, ferroniobium from pyrochlore and aluminium from bauxite;
  • Zircon sand processing and production of refractory materials;
  • Rare earth processing;
  • Processing and use of thorium compounds (welding electrodes, production of lenses, wire gauze for gas lamps;
  • Production of titanium bioxide pigment;
  • Extraction and refining of petroleum and gas extraction.

Other working activities, compared to the ones in Italian legislation, are introduced by the new European Directive 2013/59/Euratorm

  • Underground water filtration systems;
  • Geothermal energy production;
  • Coal-run power plants (boiler maintenance);
  • Production of cement (clinker furnace maintenance);
  • Primary iron production\

The following is necessary:

a dose evaluation for workers and members of the public involved in each company is carried out by the Qualified Expert and established the action levels, wherein the employer must intervene to report exposures below them.

LBS offers a turnkey service for the management of such issues, the ER service, the interface with competent authorities, the drafting and management of the necessary documentation, the samples taken, the measurements and the tests, and also the drafting of intervention plans.